The blockchain has typical features such as decentralization of accounts, data irrevocability and transparency of information, which solves to a certain extent the collaboration and value flow between individuals who do not trust each other. However, the public verifiability of the blockchain poses security challenges for user privacy, while its performance issues, especially in terms of transaction throughput and scalability, also limit further development of blockchain technology. This paper researches and discusses the two major aspects of blockchain privacy protection and scaling technologies. First, it outlines the Bitcoin and ETH technologies in the blockchain and the comparison between them; then, it introduces several typical blockchain-oriented key technologies and development status of privacy protection such as ring signature, zero knowledge proof, secure multi-party computing, homomorphic commitment and subvector commitment. Similarly, the key technologies and case studies of blockchain scale-up are introduced from both up and down the chain to break through the two major bottlenecks in the development of blockchain privacy protection and scalability, so that the blockchain has a smart contract function, under the premise of protecting user privacy with high transaction throughput and scalability, to meet the actual needs of a wide range of fields such as finance, education, social management and industrial logistics, is the future direction of development of the blockchain.