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15 October 2021 Volume 34 Issue 10
  
    Analysis of Operation Characteristics and Commutating Performance of Four-Poles Single-Phase Universal Motor
    SHANGGUAN Xuanfeng,LIU Yongjian,YANG Tingyu,WEI Jinsong
    Electronic Science and Technology. 2021, 34(10):  1-7.  doi:10.16180/j.cnki.issn1007-7820.2021.10.001
    Abstract ( 349 )   HTML ( 1238 )   PDF (1437KB) ( 152 )  
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    To reduce the increased cost of the universal motor, a new four-poles single-phase universal motor is designed based on a pick motor. The armature winding end of the motor is short, the number of brushes is small, and the auxiliary magnetic pole of the stator does not need an excitation winding, which can effectively reduce the material consumption of the series motor. By improving the structure of the traditional two-poles pick motor, the structural parameters of the new four-poles universal motor are determined and the two-dimensional finite element model of the motor is established. The air gap flux density, starting process, operating characteristics and radial force of the new series motor are simulated and analyzed. The results show that the mechanical characteristics of the four-poles series motor are relatively soft. Furthermore, the effects of the increase of the ratio of stator to rotor, different length of air gap, and the reverse offset of brush on the improvement of commutation spark are theoretically analyzed, which provides a reference for further optimization of the motor.

    A Comparative Study of High-Speed Position Sensorless Control Technology in Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors
    CUI Bo,FANG Lingli,JIANG Quan,BI Chao
    Electronic Science and Technology. 2021, 34(10):  8-10.  doi:10.16180/j.cnki.issn1007-7820.2021.10.002
    Abstract ( 294 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (2537KB) ( 55 )  
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    In this study, three sensorless estimation algorithms are investigated for the position sensorless technology in the high-speed operation mode in permanent magnet synchronous motors, including the sliding-mode observer, the Luenberger observer, and the model-referenced adaptive system. The sliding mode observer algorithm has good stability, but due to the existence of the discontinuous switching value of the system, it is not conducive to extracting the effective back EMF. By adding a filter, the back EMF can be effectively extracted. Luenberger algorithm is simple, but back EMF coupling can lead to some interfering signals. For engineering purposes, a phase-locked loops needs to be added to make the estimation more accurate. The model reference adaptive system is relatively complicated, so the feedback adaptive law is designed based on Popov stability theory. Simulation analysis of three sensorless observer algorithms show that the sliding-mode observer algorithm has the best robustness. Compared with the Luenberger algorithm, it has fewer parameter and is conducive to engineering realization. The adaptive law design of MRAS is complicated by the fact that two sets of models are required for calculation. Therefore, the performance requirements of the controller are relatively high, which is not conducive to engineering implementation.

    The Analysis of Field Changes for Induction Motor with Broken End Rings
    WANG Xinzhang,GUO Qiang,XU Xiaozhuo
    Electronic Science and Technology. 2021, 34(10):  18-26.  doi:10.16180/j.cnki.issn1007-7820.2021.10.003
    Abstract ( 213 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (4253KB) ( 20 )  
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    In view of the problems of broken rotor bar and broken end rings of induction motor, in this study, using the finite element method, a Y160L-6 asynchronous motor is taken as an example to establish the finite element models of the normal motor, the broken aluminum strip and the broken end ring motor. The transient magnetic field calculation is carried out, and the change of stator and rotor current and the change of air gap magnetic density are analyzed. Based on the loss results calculated by the electromagnetic field, the three-dimensional steady-state temperature field distribution of the motor is calculated, and the results show that different faults can cause the temperature distribution of the motor to increase in different degrees. The stress distribution of the rotor is calculated using the calculation result of the temperature field as the load. Different faults lead to different degrees of increase in rotor thermal stress distribution. The fracture of the aluminum bar and the end ring induce a significant change in the stress at the connection between the aluminum bar and the end ring.

    Design of Modular Parallel Current Sharing Single-Phase Inverter
    LI Lin,XIE Ming,HUANG Song
    Electronic Science and Technology. 2021, 34(10):  27-31.  doi:10.16180/j.cnki.issn1007-7820.2021.10.004
    Abstract ( 453 )   HTML ( 30 )   PDF (960KB) ( 126 )  
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    With the rapid growth of power consumption, in view of the problem of inflexible design and maintenance of high-power inverter in the field of new energy grid connection and motor drive, this study presents a design scheme of modular inverter. To make the inverters in parallel can operate in phase synchronization and share the current equally, the STM32F407 processor is used to synchronize the drive and communication control of the modular inverter. To quickly transfer the phase information, the analog signal communication scheme is adopted, so that the voltage amplitude and phase of multiple inverters can be synchronized quickly, and the function of flexible parallel connection is realized to meet the needs of different power levels. Finally, the feasibility of the scheme is proved by simulation and actual prototype test, and better steady-state performance is obtained by optimizing the control algorithm.

    Electromagnetic Simulation Analysis of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Demagnetization Fault
    CHEN Shengli,WANG Xinzhang,XU Xiaozhuo
    Electronic Science and Technology. 2021, 34(10):  32-37.  doi:10.16180/j.cnki.issn1007-7820.2021.10.005
    Abstract ( 508 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (2010KB) ( 83 )  
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    In view of the problem of permanent magnet loss of permanent magnet synchronous motor, the method of finite element analysis is used in the proposed study to establish Ansoft Maxwell finite element analysis model of 3 kW small permanent magnet synchronous motor. The method of reducing the coercive force and residual magnetic induction of permanent magnet materials is adopted to simulate the permanent magnet demagnetization failure, and the finite element models of the motor under different degrees of loss of magnetism are established. The results show that when the permanent magnet synchronous motor has a 50% loss of field fault, the air gap magnetic density decreases in varying degrees at no-load and load, the no-load air gap magnetic field attenuates by 53.0% and the load decays by 19.8%. Additionally, the induced potential decreases linearly, the current nonlinearity increases, and the fundamental and harmonic components of the induced potential decrease in varying degrees. The motor output torque decreases with the increase of the loss of field, and when the degree of loss of excitation reaches 50%, the permanent magnet motor cannot reach the rated torque output state. This result can be used as an important basis for the diagnosis of loss of excitation fault.

    Influence of Micro-Stepping Drive Mode on Pull-Out Torque of Three-Phase Hybrid Stepper Motor
    YAO Kailun,BI Chao
    Electronic Science and Technology. 2021, 34(10):  38-44.  doi:10.16180/j.cnki.issn1007-7820.2021.10.006
    Abstract ( 228 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (2046KB) ( 21 )  
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    The three-phase hybrid stepper motor driven by micro-stepping has the advantage of high position accuracy, and can affect the pull-out torque of the motor. The dynamic characteristics of the stepper motor is related to the drive method. In practical application, pull-out torque is difficult to measure, and it limits the research on the pull-out torque. To analyze the relationship between the pull-out torque and the drive mode, a simulation model of three-phase hybrid stepper motor is established. The fluctuation of motor speed is observed by increasing the number of micro-stepping under no-load condition. By increasing the input load of the motor, the change of pull-out torque of three-phase hybrid stepping motor is measured and observed under the condition of constant motor speed, changing number of micro stepping and constant number of micro-stepping, changing motor speed. At the same time, the pull-out torque of three-phase and two-phase hybrid stepping motor is compared under same parameters. The no-load speed of actual motor with different number of micro-stepping is measured, which proves that micro-stepping drive mode can improve the pull-out torque of hybrid stepping motor.

    Circulation Suppression Strategy of MMC Based on Hybrid Modulation
    SUN Yue,ZENG Guohui,HUANG Bo
    Electronic Science and Technology. 2021, 34(10):  45-50.  doi:10.16180/j.cnki.issn1007-7820.2021.10.007
    Abstract ( 124 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (1178KB) ( 30 )  
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    In order to suppress the second harmonic circulation caused by the unequal sum of the upper and lower bridge arms voltages of each phase when the MMC is running, a circulation suppression strategy combining adaptive notch filter and quasi proportional resonance controller is proposed. The strategy uses adaptive notch filter to extract the second harmonic circulation component, and the tracking of this component without static error is realized through the quasi proportional resonance controller, thus obtaining the required compensation voltage. This strategy combined with the hybrid modulation method can reduce the second harmonic circulation by about 65%, improve the distortion degree of the bridge arm current and elevate the output waveform quality of MMC. Finally, the simulation results verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed scheme.

    Optimization Control of Quadrotor UAVs Based on Neural Network PID Algorithm
    GUO Jie,JIN Hai,SHEN Xinge
    Electronic Science and Technology. 2021, 34(10):  51-55.  doi:10.16180/j.cnki.issn1007-7820.2021.10.008
    Abstract ( 505 )   HTML ( 24 )   PDF (713KB) ( 99 )  
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    In this study, an attitude control algorithm based on neural network PID is proposed to solve the time-varying and nonlinear problems of the quadrotor UAVs system. The algorithm has the strong adaptive ability of PID algorithm and the strong anti-interference ability of neural network. Based on the establishment of the rigid body kinematics model and dynamics model of the quadrotor UAVs, the attitude simulation control model of the quadrotor UAV MATLAB-Simulink is built, and the control effect of the neural network PID control algorithm, traditional PID and cascade PID control algorithm on the three attitude angles of the UAVs is compared. The results show that compared with the other two control algorithms, the transition time of neural network PID control algorithm is reduced from 4 s to 1 s, and the static error of the system after output stabilization is only 0.5%, indicating that the neural network PID control algorithm has high control precision and better static and dynamic characteristics.

    Interval Estimation of Sensor Fault for Attitude Control System of UAV
    YANG Yuwei,SONG Fang,ZHANG Wei
    Electronic Science and Technology. 2021, 34(10):  56-62.  doi:10.16180/j.cnki.issn1007-7820.2021.10.009
    Abstract ( 179 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (833KB) ( 17 )  
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    This study aims at estimating the sensor fault interval of attitude control system of quadrotor UAV based on zonotopes. The UAV’s nonlinear system is linearized by Taylor series expansion and the original system is transformed into an equivalent generalized system by considering the sensor fault as an augmented state. A robust augmented state observer is design by using H technique. By solving the linear matrix inequalities, the fault estimation of sensor in quadrotor UAV attitude control system is obtained. The fault interval and algorithm design can be obtained by the analysis of zonotopes. Based on the MATLAB simulation platform, taking the quadrotor UAV attitude control sensor failure system as the object, the feasibility and effectiveness of the interval estimation proposed in the study are verified.

    An Improve Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Distribution and Flexible Job-Shop Scheduling Problem
    CHEN Qiang,WANG Yujia,LIN Weixing,CHEN Wanfen
    Electronic Science and Technology. 2021, 34(10):  63-68.  doi:10.16180/j.cnki.issn1007-7820.2021.10.010
    Abstract ( 173 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (751KB) ( 24 )  
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    An improved particle swarm optimization is proposed in this study for the complex distribution and flexible job-shop scheduling problem. According to the characteristics of the problem, this study proposes a two-layer particle encoding and decoding method, so that the particle swarm algorithm can effectively solve the discrete optimization problem. Additionally, an improved crowded distance is used to select high-quality candidate solutions from many non-dominated solutions. In the iterative process, the task assignment strategy is used to balance the exploration and exploitation of particles. Finally, in the production modes of 2 factories and 3 factories, the performance of the algorithm is evaluated by 20 sets of distribution and flexible job-shop scheduling test cases. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively solve distribution and flexible job-shop scheduling problem, and can obtain a better scheduling scheme in 11 sets of examples.

    Color Commodity Label Image Segmentation Method Based on SVM and Region Growth
    JU Zhiyong,ZHAI Chunyu,ZHANG Wenxin
    Electronic Science and Technology. 2021, 34(10):  69-74.  doi:10.16180/j.cnki.issn1007-7820.2021.10.011
    Abstract ( 181 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (1677KB) ( 50 )  
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    The noise and gray scale growth in the traditional area may cause voids and over-segmentation, which will seriously affect the image segmentation effect. To solve this problem, this study proposes a color label image segmentation algorithm combining SVM and region growth. The algorithm uses the color information and texture of the label part and product part as positive and negative samples of the SVM, which effectively improves the efficiency and the accuracy of image segmentation. When extracting positive and negative samples, the improved region growth algorithm is used to segment feature areas and extract features. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has a mechanism for correcting error detection information, improves the segmentation efficiency, prevents the over-segmentation phenomenon of traditional regional growth algorithms during segmentation, and has good robustness, which lays the foundation for later expansion.

    Design of Apple Disaster Intelligent Protection System Based on STM32F417IGT6
    LI Beiru,YANG Yanning,WANG Kai,ZHANG Jianpeng,ZOU Bin
    Electronic Science and Technology. 2021, 34(10):  75-80.  doi:10.16180/j.cnki.issn1007-7820.2021.10.012
    Abstract ( 232 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (858KB) ( 32 )  
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    In order to avoid the influence of frost and hail on the growth of apple, an intelligent disaster prevention system based on STM32F417IGT6 is designed. The system adopts the method of combination of software and hardware, with STM32F417IGT6 as the main control chip, and obtains weather information through DHT11 digital temperature and humidity sensor. In addition, the system uses ESP8266 for wireless communication, and corresponding protection measures are designed for frost and hail weather. The designed system allows users to take timely countermeasures before the arrival of frost and hail to increase apple production. The field test and experimental data of the prototype show that the system can give an early warning to the users 20 minutes in advance, and fully start the protective device within 2 minutes, which has the characteristics of low cost, fast response speed and strong protective function, and has high application and promotion value.

    First Principles Research Progress of Two Dimensional Ferroelectric Materials
    WU Chunxiang,ZHONG Chonggui
    Electronic Science and Technology. 2021, 34(10):  81-86.  doi:10.16180/j.cnki.issn1007-7820.2021.10.013
    Abstract ( 320 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (755KB) ( 81 )  
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    Due to its inherent size and surface effect, the ferroelectric properties of two-dimensional ferroelectrics are very different from those of traditional bulk ferroelectrics. So far, two-dimensional ferroelectrics have been reported to have many properties, including bulk photoelectric effect, piezoelectric / pyroelectric effect, valley polarization and spin polarization. These properties either depend on ferroelectric polarization or couple with it for electrical control, which makes 2D ferroelectrics suitable for multi-functional nano devices. At present, the research of two-dimensional ferroelectrics in theory, experiment and application is accumulating. This study briefly introduces these theories and methods. Then, the intrinsic and extrinsic origins of two-dimensional ferroelectrics are summarized respectively. Finally, the existing problems and development prospects of two-dimensional ferroelectrics are discussed.

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